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Volume: 38
Number: 4
Index: December 2010
Clinical Focus:Respiratory Care
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December 2010
Clinical Focus: Respiratory Medicine
  • Asthma and the athlete
    • Vocal cord dysfunction
    • Exercise-induced asthma
    • Exercise-induced bronchospasm
  • COPD
    • Obesity and COPD
    • Relationship between COPD and nutrition intake
  • Treatment options for steroid-induced osteoporosis in men
  • Treatments for asthma
    • Bronchodilators, anticholinergics
    • Corticosteroids
    • Metered-dose vs other types of inhalers
  • Respiratory infections in winter sports athletes
  • Asthma in elite athletes
  • Pulmonary rehabilitation and physical activity
  • Fitness and long-term oxygen therapy/lung transplantation
  • Airflow function and the metabolic syndrome
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doi: 10.3810/psm.2021.12.14
The Physician and Sportsmedicine: Volume 36: No.1
Normal Resting Electrocardiographic Variants in Young Athletes
John P. Higgins, MD, MPhil, FACC, FAHA, FACP, FSGC
Abstract: With a growing awareness of the tragedy of sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) in young athletes, more extensive pre-participation examinations are being performed prior to competitive sport participation. In addition to a history and physical, young athletes often have a 12-lead resting electrocardiogram (ECG) to better identify heart disease associated with SCA. Complicating this process is that certain "abnormal" resting ECG findings are considered normal variants in healthy children and young adults. The ability to recognize these normal variants is often useful in preventing excessive referral of patients to cardiologists for evaluation of resting ECG's that are benign variations of normal and in making sound decisions regarding appropriate clearance to exercise. This review describes these normal variants.

Keywords: normal variants; early repolarization; athlete's heart

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