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Volume: 38
Number: 4
Index: December 2010
Clinical Focus:Respiratory Care
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December 2010
Clinical Focus: Respiratory Medicine
  • Asthma and the athlete
    • Vocal cord dysfunction
    • Exercise-induced asthma
    • Exercise-induced bronchospasm
  • COPD
    • Obesity and COPD
    • Relationship between COPD and nutrition intake
  • Treatment options for steroid-induced osteoporosis in men
  • Treatments for asthma
    • Bronchodilators, anticholinergics
    • Corticosteroids
    • Metered-dose vs other types of inhalers
  • Respiratory infections in winter sports athletes
  • Asthma in elite athletes
  • Pulmonary rehabilitation and physical activity
  • Fitness and long-term oxygen therapy/lung transplantation
  • Airflow function and the metabolic syndrome
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doi: 10.3810/psm.2010.06.1782
The Physician and Sportsmedicine: Volume 38: No.2
Management of Medial Collateral Ligament Injuries in the Knee:
An Update and Review
Patrick S. Duffy, MD And Ryan G. Miyamoto, MD
Abstract: The medial collateral ligament (MCL) is the most frequently injured ligament in the knee, with mild-to-moderate tears often going unreported to physicians. Medial collateral ligament injuries can result from both contact and noncontact sporting activities. The mainstay of treatment is nonoperative; however, operative management of symptomatic grade II and grade III injuries is considered when laxity and instability persist. The timing of surgical repair in the setting of a multiligament knee injury remains an area of controversy among surgeons, with proponents of early reconstruction of the anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments and nonoperative management of the MCL versus proponents of delayed reconstruction following nonoperative treatment of the MCL. Prophylactic bracing may continue to increase and evolve as bracing technology improves and athletic cultures change.

Keywords: medial collateral ligament; anterior cruciate ligament; knee bracing; tibial collateral ligament


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