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Clinical Focus: Respiratory Medicine
  • Asthma and the athlete
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doi: 10.3810/psm.2002.11.523
The Physician and Sportsmedicine: Volume 30: No.11
The Future of Performance-Enhancing Substances in Sport
Michael S. Bahrke, PhD; Charles E. Yesalis, MPH, ScD
Abstract: Athletes have used performance-enhancing substances (PESs) since ancient times, and still do.1 Testing during the 2000 Tour de France revealed the presence of various performance enhancers (drugs and supplements alike) in the urine of 45% of competitors who were tested.2 Furthermore, some of today's athletes use relatively simple medical techniques such as homologous and autologous blood transfusions to improve performance. Scientists may be inadvertently making it easier to circumvent drug tests by creating new delivery modalities such as patches and gels to administer "old" drugs such as testosterone. This method provides stable levels of the drug in the blood rather than the "spikes" that follow injections, and thus reduces the chance of positive tests.3

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